Most people suffer from periodontal problems at different levels from mild gingivitis or even a more serious condition of periodontal disease that has no other option than tooth extraction.

What are the causes of periodontal problems?

The plaque is the cause of problems in the teeth and also in the gums. When the toxic acid in the plaque has contact with the gums it causes open ulcers / wounds, which initially manifest with mild or primary gingivitis accompanied by slight inflammation, redness, and bleeding (initially during brushing later spontaneously). If it is no treated, is followed by a more severe damage in which the bacteria are introduced into the periodontal pocket causing their separation of the teeth and folowed by the retraction of the gums towards the direction of the root of the tooth, exposing the roots to dental hypersensitivity, the displacement and instability of the teeth, and subsequently causing the loss of teeth.

Are there other causes of periodontal disease? Yes, Smoking is a dominant factor in periodontal disease as a factor that causes disease or worsens rapidly, so any possibility of treatment including dental implants fall below 50% the chances of success. Systemic diseases such as diabetes directly affect the gums. The use of piercing on the tongue damages and hits the teeth and gums for almost 24 consecutive hours without the patient paying attention to it.

How to prevent gum problems?:  good oral hygiene, correct brushing, use of small interdental brushes or oral irrigators for prevention or maintenance after periodontal treatment and it is very important to visit the dentist regularly because periodontal disease is not painful and mild bleeding does not make the patient understand that he has a problem that requires a visit to the clinic for diagnosis and treatment.

In periodontal disease, there are primary stages that after the treatment solves the problem? The most important thing is the patient’s oral hygiene that is the key to success after the periodontal treatment performed by a dentist. Because the bacteria that live in the mouth cannot be eliminated and there is a daily risk that proliferate only a good and correct hygiene will prevent the progression of the disease.Do not believe that after periodontal treatment the disease will not return as noted above only the patient’s behavior and periodic visit to the dentist can prevent deterioration. It could be said that after treatment the gums are healthy, but the damage is irreversible because the retraction cannot be reversed and repositioned, back to where they were before the disease. And there are cases that after a couple of months of treatment without keeping the hygiene rules the disease back again.

What are the stages of the disease?

In the first stage, known as gingivitis, is an inflammatory process due to the ulcers caused by the acid secretion of the plaque. These gums swell, red, and bleed a little after touching them during daily brushing. This situation reverses completely after several weeks of a correct brushing that promote the closing of the wounds / ulcers. The gums are replenished, and they stop bleeding and recover completely. Treatment at the clinic is a routine removal of tartar.

The second stage is called periodontal disease or periodontitis. At this level, the damage is irreversible with receding gums, bleeding can be spontaneous, make halitosis, loss of tooth support causing displacement of teeth, treatment must be performed under local anesthesia, and is called deep treatment or scaling and root planning that aims to eliminate infection focus within the periodontal pockets. And try to stop the process and deterioration to a more serious situation. Patient hygiene is crucial at this stage and over the years to stop the process.

Stage Three called Periodontal Disease or Progressive Parodontosis: This is the last stage before teeth are removed .It manifests with massive bleeding and sometimes blood stains on the pillow upon waking in the morning, a terrible bad odor that comes out of the mouth, very visible roots, displacement of teeth from its original position as a fan that opens in the anterior area of the mouth, large spaces between the teeth and towards the gums, severe aesthetic problems that usually have the need to sacrifice and remove the teeth to correct the appearance, loss of tooth support of 50% or more causing the teeth to move. The treatment at this stage is periodontal surgery, the the chances of success are not always in the patient’s favor.

The fourth and last stage: serious condition without treatment and the teeth must be extracted.

Is there also periodontal disease around implants? Yes, that’s correct because the oral bacteria do not differentiate between tooth or implant, the deterioration and damage to the implant is faster than the tooth.

There is a medication for the disease?: the medication is accompanied by periodontal treatments in the clinic and these are inserted in the periodontal pockets, the release of the medication is slow.

There are those who are disinfectants based on chlorhexidine such as PERIOCHIP antibiotics (Arestin based on minocycline) which are based on growth proteins (emodgain) or based on hyaluronic acid which is a biological substance (But as I mentioned, it is inserted by the dentist in the periodontal pockets

The use of oral rinses to treat gum problems is of limited effectiveness and does not eliminate the disease without medical treatment

The oral irrigator is an excellent maintenance therapy in the more advanced disease or in the absence of it, due to the penetration of the water in the periodontal pockets and the gingival grooves and producing the total bacterial elimination, that cannot be done with a brush or floss.

Damage by periodontal disease. Bacteria found in the gums penetrate the blood system and cause damage to various systems of the body. There are dozens of studies that demonstrate a direct link between periodontal disease and heart problems. People with advanced periodontal disease have a very high risk, as smokers who develop heart problems, produce heart valve infections that can risk life. People who suffer from periodontal disease suffer 3 times more stroke and 4 times osteoporosis. In diabetes. bacteria penetrate the bloodstream and increases blood glucose by decreasing the effect of insulin and worsening periodontal disease. Today there are studies that show a link between periodontal disease, with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Because of this, those patients who need complex treatments to save their lives prior to the medical procedure are referred the patient to the dentist to authorize, the absence of oral infection and periodontal disease, those infected teeth should be extracted immediately before the hospital procedure.